Eve Arnold, the celebrated American photojournalist whose famous subjects included Marilyn Monroe and Malcolm X, has died in London at the age of 99. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in April 1912, she was the first female to be admitted to the famous photographic co-operative Magnum. Arnold shot her generation’s greatest movie stars, including Paul Newman, Joan Crawford and Elizabeth Taylor. In 2003 she became an OBE for her services to photography. Jacqueline Kennedy, Margaret Thatcher and Marlene Dietrich were among her many other celebrated subjects. Yet she also took pictures of migrant labourers, New York bartenders, Cuban fishermen and Afghan nomads. A sharp critic of McCarthyism, apartheid, poverty and social injustice, she lived with hippy communes and the Black Power movement. She also spent time in the Arab States, documenting life there in pictures that were published in 1971 under the title Behind the Veil. During the 1970s she was granted a rare visa that enabled her to complete a landmark project in China. According to a Magnum spokeswoman, Arnold died peacefully on Wednesday in a London nursing home.
Marilyn Monroe – ‘fragile and poised by turn’ – photographed by Eve Arnold in the Nevada desert during the filming of The Misfits (1961). Photograph: © Eve Arnold/Magnum